An introduction to the implementation of a new project at the Large Hadron Collider. Successful first tests
At the Large Hadron Collider, scientists for the first time accelerated almost to the speed of light a beam of lead ions carrying a single electron, and not, as before, single protons or atomic nuclei. This is an introduction to the implementation of a new project at CERN – the Gamma-ray Factory.
This past week at the Large Hadron CollideroThe ion beam was accelerated inoin lead carrying a single electron. The test was an exciting proof of concept, ktora may lead to a series of breakthrough experimentsoin and potentially even to create new types ofoin matter.
Large Hadron Colliderow (LHC – Large Hadron Collider) is the largest machine in the world. Located at the center of the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN on the French-Swiss border, near Geneva.
Typically, proton beams are accelerated at the LHCow to insane speeds close to the speed of light, then collide with each other to release extreme levels of energy. The results of these collisions are recorded with a detectoroin elementary particles. This allows scientists to study the world at very small scales – elusive elements, with which theorich everything that surrounds us is built on.
Experiments at the LHC led to the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 and have since given us mnostwo new information on the intervalsoof subatomic particles. They also provide an indication ofowks on the new physics and help confirm the limits of reality.
However, despite decades of experimentationow, only now scientists have for the first time accelerated not only atomic nuclei at the LHC, but roalso atoms containing one electron. The test conducted last week was a prelude to the implementation of a new CERN project – the Gamma-ray Factory (Gamma Factory).
– We are testing new ideas. We are investigating howob we can expand CERN’s current research program and infrastructure, and figuring out what is possible is the first step, he – Michael Schumann of the LHC said.
The idea of Gamma Factory is to excite accelerated to nearly the speed of light ionized atomicow using an intense laser beam. Excitation results in spontaneous re-emission of gamma radiation, ktore due to the Doppler effect has a much higher energy.
These gamma rays would have sufficient energy to produce normal particles of matter, such as quarks, electrons and even muons. Since matter and energy are two sides of the same coin, these high-energy gamma rays can transform into massive particles and even into new types of matter, such as dark matter. They can roHe also be the source of theoThe bottom line for new types ofoin particle beams, such as a muon beam.
The idea of the Gamma Factory was first presented by Prof. Witold Krasny’s 2015 Epiphany conference in Krakow, Poland. – This experiment is really the culmination of a series of earlier testsow – admitted Krasny, currently coordinator of the project and a group of about 50 scientistsow seeking a method of producing high-energy, high-intensity gamma-ray beams.
A successful test with incompletely ionized lead atoms at the LHC has been hailed as a breakthrough, and congratulations to the team of Prof. Krasny has come down from many corners of theoin the world. – You can believe me – is a big deal! In my humble opinion, this is one of the mainow of scientific advances in physics this year! – announced Prof. Dimitry Budker of UC Berkeley.
Professor Witold Krasny is a graduate of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering at AGH University of Science and Technology and a graduate of physics at Jagiellonian University, and earned his doctorate at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at CERN. The Henryka Niewodniczanska Museum in Krakow. For many years he has been associated with the laboratory of LPNHE, the Paris Sorbonne. She is currently working at CERN.