US gives green light to CRISPR-modified foods
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has issued a decision to allow food created using the CRISPR gene-editing method to be marketed. This means that GMO regulations will not apply to this type of organism.
The decision opens the possibility for scientists to create a new generation of genetically altered crops without serious restrictions and paves the way for approval of similar work in Europe. Scientists were concerned that restrictions on the creation and cultivation of genetically modified plants would roalso applied to plants grown using the gene editing techniqueoin CRISPR.
– I believe that the decision of the US legislatorsoin will bring many benefits in the long run,” said Professor Denis Murphy of the University of South Wales. – This is a win-win situation, as agriculture using gene editing technologyoin (CRISPR – footnote. red.) is cheaper, faster, simpler and more precise than genetic modification of plants, in whichohe gene is taken from one organism and transferred to another – added.
The European Court of Justice indicated in January that it does not believe that crops created using gene-editing techniquesoin CRISPR should be regulated by regulations on genetically modified organismsow, more widely known as GMOs.
For genetically modified food – GMOS – cling to the patch of this unhealthy and disease-causing cropob, with cancer at the forefront. However, many researchers now believe that it does not pose a threat. This position is supported by 271 organizations competent in the subject from around the world, including: World Health Organization, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Royal Society, the European Food Safety Authority, and the European Food Safety Authority. Food safety, the Pontifical Academy of Sciences or the presidium of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Scientists were concerned that foods modified using gene-editing technologyoin CRISPR will be treated as GMOs.
Humans, as a species, have implemented genetic modification by breeding methods since ancient times. In this wayob, through selective breeding, a number of varieties of roof different speciesow – m.in. hexloid common wheat produced in this way. But these days, genetic modification as traditionally understood means using genetic engineering, whichora involves transferring genoin a single organism, e.g. bacteria, whichorej features are desired, to another organism – plants, where these traits have pomoc in cultivation. This is what GMOs look like.
In this case, we are dealing with a different technique. The issue here is gene editingoIn CRISPR, whichora allows scientists to fine-tune plant DNA for better taste, longer shelf life or ability to survive drought. Scientists can use this technique to precisely edit even single letters of genetic material composed of nucleotidesoin marked with the letters A, G, C and T. No genes of another organism are introduced.
– The change from G to A very rois different from transferring a gene from a bacterium to a plant – said in 2016 genetics guru George Church, when right, ktorego resulted in a decision by the US Department of Agriculture began to take shapeow.
CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a system used by bacteria to defend themselves against viruses. It’s such a defense mechanism, a repetitive sequence of fragmentsoin DNA. It was noticed by Yoshizumi Ishino in the late 1980s. last century in the genome of Escherichia coli bacteria. CRISPR contains information about the DNA of virusesoin and in combination with a DNA-cutting enzyme – Cas9 endonuclease provides a defense system against viruses. The technique is properly called CRISPR-Cas9, but for simplicity the first part of the name is used.
Scientists have been working on potential applications of CRISPR for some time now to helpoc feed a growing population on a planet with diminishing arable land. Chnach is conducting research using CRISPR technology to create more immunized cows, better able to cope with tuberculosis or chronic bacterial disease. This will reduce the addition of antibioticoin, which in turn will limit the development ofoj antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In Sweden, experiments are being conducted at Umea University with vegetables thatore will be better protected against pests.
This type of research using the CRISPR method is more. – Not mohere we are about the future. Mow e are talking about the present – said Stefan Jansson of Umea University.